Who Divided the Bible into Two? Understanding the Origins of the Old and New Testaments

As Christians, we are likely familiar with the Bible as a collection of sacred writings divided into the Old and New Testaments. This division highlights the distinction between God’s interactions with his people before and after the birth of Jesus Christ. However, have you ever stopped to consider how this division came to be and who made that decision? Understanding the origins of our sacred writings can help us appreciate the Bible more deeply and uncover meaningful insights about our faith.

In this blog post, we will delve into the fascinating history behind the division of the Bible into the Old and New Testaments. We will examine how the early Christian community grappled with the question of what texts should be included in their sacred writings and explore the key figures and events that shaped the formation of the Bible as we know it today. So, let’s embark on this journey to learn more about the origins of our beloved Scripture!

Key Takeaways:

  • The Bible is divided into the Old and New Testaments to highlight the distinction between God’s interactions with His people before and after the birth of Jesus Christ.
  • The Old Testament is derived from the Jewish Hebrew Bible, and the New Testament is a collection of Christian writings about the life of Jesus and the early Church.
  • Early Christians debated over which texts should be included in the New Testament, leading to the development of criteria for determining which writings were divinely inspired.
  • Church councils played a significant role in defining the scope of the Bible.

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Who Divided the Bible into Two? Understanding the Origins of the Old and New Testaments

The Origins of the Old Testament

The Hebrew Bible

The Old Testament is essentially the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Tanakh, which is a collection of ancient Jewish writings. The Hebrew Bible consists of three main sections: The Torah (Law), Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings). Torah, in particular, bears great importance in Judaism as it contains God’s commandments delivered to the Israelites through Moses. By the time Jesus was born, the Hebrew Bible was already considered sacred scripture within the Jewish community.

The Septuagint

In the third century BCE, many Jewish communities had migrated to other parts of the Mediterranean world and began speaking Greek. As a result, the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek, a version called the Septuagint. The Septuagint included a few additional texts that were not part of the Hebrew canon, such as the books of the Apocrypha. Early Christians, who were familiar with the Septuagint, utilized these Greek translations in their worship and teachings.

Adopting the Septuagint as the Old Testament

Early Christians saw Jesus as the fulfillment of prophecies found in the Hebrew Scriptures, especially through the Septuagint, which was more accessible to Greek-speaking communities. As Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, the Septuagint was adopted as the Old Testament and became the official translation for Christian use.

The Development of the New Testament

The Need for a New Collection

As the early Christian movement gained momentum, believers began to share their experiences, teachings, and revelations about Jesus Christ in writing. Some of these writings included letters from apostles and church leaders, as well as accounts of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection (Gospels). Since these texts were held in high esteem by the believers, there arose a need to collect and preserve these writings, separate from the Hebrew Scriptures, in a new canon of Christian teaching.

Criteria for Inclusion

In the early centuries of Christianity, various texts circulated among believers, but not all of these writings were considered divinely inspired or authoritative. Consequently, early Christians developed criteria for determining which texts should be included in the New Testament. The guidelines considered were apostolic origin (authored by an apostle or a close associate), widespread acceptance by the Christian community, and consistency with accepted Christian teaching and practice.

The Canonization Process

The process of determining the New Testament canon was not a straightforward or quick endeavor. Nevertheless, by the end of the second century, four Gospels – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John – and Paul’s letters were widely accepted as divinely inspired. Other controversial books like Hebrews, James, and Revelation took longer to achieve consensus.

Church Councils and the Formation of the Bible

The Council of Carthage

Several council meetings took place in the fourth and fifth centuries to address the question of biblical canon. One of the most significant councils was the Council of Carthage, held in 397 AD, which ratified and confirmed the list of 27 New Testament books that we have today. By accepting this canon, the council effectively divided the Bible into the Old and New Testaments.

Other Councils and Confirmation

Though the Council of Carthage played a crucial role in formalizing the biblical canon, other church councils and regional synods contributed to the broader acceptance and confirmation of the Bible’s contents. As a result, throughout the centuries, the division between the Old and New Testaments was reinforced, and the Bible continued to serve as a foundational text for Christian faith and practice.


The division of the Bible into the Old and New Testaments has a rich and complex history, arising from a combination of historical, linguistic, theological, and practical factors. While the Old Testament traces its roots back to the Hebrew Bible and the Septuagint, the development of the New Testament canon took place over several centuries, guided by the discernment of early Christian communities and Church councils.

Understanding the origins of the division of the Bible into the Old and New Testaments highlights the importance of preserving and honoring the sacred texts passed down through generations. By appreciating the work put into the formation of the Bible, we can better grasp the significance of the Word of God and the role it plays in our lives as Christians.

As we continue to read and study the Bible, let us remember the rich history that formed it and the countless individuals who played a role in shaping our sacred texts. By doing so, we can more deeply appreciate the profound wisdom and divine teachings found within its pages and, in turn, grow in our faith and understanding of God’s plan for us.

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