What is Fasting in the Bible?
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What is Fasting in the Bible?


Fasting is a spiritual practice that has been observed by people of faith throughout history. In its most basic form, fasting-for-beginners-223/”>fasting involves abstaining from food or drink for a specific period, typically for spiritual reasons. Fasting is deeply rooted in the Christian tradition and is mentioned several times in the Bible. This blog post will explore the biblical understanding of fasting, its importance, and how it can benefit the spiritual lives of believers today.

The Bible provides various examples of fasting, which serve as a testament to its significance in the lives of God’s people. In both the Old and New Testaments, fasting is practiced by individuals and communities as an expression of humility, repentance, and a means to draw closer to God. Fasting is not just about abstaining from food, but it is an act of intentional self-denial that helps believers focus on their relationship with God and align their hearts with His will.

As we dive deeper into the topic of fasting in the Bible, we will examine the various instances where fasting is mentioned, the reasons behind it, and the spiritual benefits it offers. It is our hope that by understanding fasting from a biblical perspective, believers can develop a richer, more meaningful relationship with God and experience the transformative power of this spiritual discipline in their lives.

fasting in the Bible

Fasting in the Old Testament

Fasting is mentioned numerous times throughout the Old Testament. Some of the most notable instances include:


Moses fasted for 40 days and 40 nights while he was on Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God. This is recorded in Exodus 34:28 (NKJV): “So he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he neither ate bread nor drank water. And He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.”


King David fasted and prayed for the healing of his sick child, as recorded in 2 Samuel 12:16 (NKJV): “David therefore pleaded with God for the child, and David fasted and went in and lay all night on the ground.”


Queen Esther called for a three-day fast for all the Jews in the Persian Empire before she approached King Xerxes to request that her people be spared from annihilation. This is recorded in Esther 4:16 (NKJV): “Go, gather all the Jews who are present in Shushan, and fast for me; neither eat nor drink for three days, night or day. My maids and I will fast likewise. And so I will go to the king, which is against the law; and if I perish, I perish.”


Daniel fasted to seek wisdom and understanding from God. In Daniel 10:2-3 (NKJV), we read: “In those days I, Daniel, was mourning three full weeks. I ate no pleasant food, no meat or wine came into my mouth, nor did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled.”

Fasting in the New Testament

Fasting also plays a significant role in the New Testament. Some of the most notable instances include:


Jesus fasted for 40 days and 40 nights in the wilderness before He began His public ministry. This is recorded in Matthew 4:2 (NKJV): “And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterward He was hungry.”

Early Church

The early church practiced fasting as a way to seek God’s guidance and direction. In Acts 13:2-3 (NKJV), we read: “As they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, ‘Now separate to Me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.’ Then, having fasted and prayed, and laid hands on them, they sent them away.”

Apostle Paul

The Apostle Paul practiced fasting as part of his spiritual discipline. In 2 Corinthians 11:27 (NKJV), Paul lists fasting as one of the hardships he faced in his ministry: “in weariness and toil, in sleeplessness often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.”

The Purpose of Fasting

Fasting in the Bible serves several purposes, which include:

Humility and Repentance

Fasting is an act of humility, acknowledging our dependence on God and our need for His guidance. In the Old Testament, the Israelites fasted to demonstrate their repentance and seek God’s forgiveness. An example is found in Jonah 3:5 (NKJV): “So the people of Nineveh believed God, proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest to the least of them.”

Seeking God’s Guidance

Fasting can be a way to seek God’s guidance and discern His will in specific situations. As mentioned earlier, the early church fasted when seeking direction for ministry, and Esther called for a fast before making a crucial request of the king.

Spiritual Discipline

Fasting is a spiritual discipline that helps believers develop self-control and focus on their relationship with God. Jesus taught about fasting in the Sermon on the Mount, emphasizing the importance of fasting with the right motives, as recorded in Matthew 6:16-18 (NKJV): “Moreover, when you fast, do not be like the hypocrites, with a sad countenance. For they disfigure their faces that they may appear to men to be fasting…But when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, so that you do not appear to men to be fasting, but to your Father who is in the secret place; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly.”

Different Types of Fasting

The Bible mentions various types of fasting, including:

Absolute Fast

An absolute fast involves abstaining from both food and water for a specific period. This type of fast is seen in the cases of Moses (Exodus 34:28) and Esther (Esther 4:16).

Partial Fast

A partial fast involves abstaining from certain foods or drinks while still consuming others. Daniel’s fast is an example of a partial fast, where he refrained from eating pleasant food, meat, and wine (Daniel 10:2-3).

Regular Fast

A regular fast is when a person abstains from food but continues to drink water or other liquids. Jesus’ 40-day fast in the wilderness is an example of a regular fast (Matthew 4:2).

Corporate Fast

A corporate fast is when a group of people or a community engages in fasting together for a shared purpose. The people of Nineveh and the early church provide examples of corporate fasting (Jonah 3:5; Acts 13:2-3).

The Benefits of Fasting

Fasting has several spiritual benefits, such as:

Drawing Closer to God

Fasting helps believers draw closer to God by shifting their focus from the physical to the spiritual realm. Through self-denial, they can better hear God’s voice and deepen their relationship with Him.

Increased Spiritual Sensitivity

Fasting heightens spiritual sensitivity, making it easier for believers to discern God’s will and guidance. It serves as a reminder of our reliance on God’s strength rather than our own.

Personal and Corporate Transformation

Fasting can lead to personal and corporate transformation as believers surrender their lives to God and seek His will. As individuals and communities fast together, they can experience spiritual renewal and growth.

Intercessory Prayer

Fasting can be an effective tool in intercessory prayer, as believers dedicate their time and energy to praying for others. By fasting, they demonstrate their commitment to interceding on behalf of those in need, as seen in the example of King David praying for his sick child (2 Samuel 12:16).

Precautions and Practical Tips for Fasting

While fasting can bring spiritual benefits, it is important to approach fasting with wisdom and discernment. Here are some precautions and practical tips for fasting:

Consult with a Physician

Before engaging in fasting, especially if you plan to undertake a prolonged or absolute fast, it is essential to consult with a physician to ensure that it is safe for you to do so.

Set Clear Goals and Objectives

Determine your purpose for fasting, whether it is to seek God’s guidance, deepen your relationship with Him, or intercede for others. Having a clear objective can help you maintain focus during your fast.

Start Gradually

If you are new to fasting, begin with shorter periods or partial fasts before progressing to more extended or more restrictive fasts. This will help your body adjust to the practice of fasting.

Stay Hydrated

During a regular fast, ensure that you drink plenty of water or other non-caloric liquids to stay hydrated.

Break Your Fast Wisely

When breaking your fast, do so gently by consuming small amounts of easily digestible food. Avoid overeating or consuming heavy meals immediately after fasting.


In conclusion, fasting is a vital spiritual practice rooted in the Bible and has been observed by people of faith throughout history. It is an act of self-denial that helps believers draw closer to God, seek His guidance, and deepen their spiritual lives.

Understanding the biblical basis for fasting allows believers to appreciate its significance and integrate it into their spiritual disciplines. By engaging in fasting with the right motives and a sincere heart, Christians can experience personal and corporate transformation, leading to a more profound and meaningful relationship with God.

As we continue to seek God’s presence in our lives, let us embrace the discipline of fasting, recognizing its biblical foundation and the spiritual benefits it offers. May our fasting be an act of humility, devotion, and obedience, allowing us to grow closer to our loving and gracious God.

Pastor Duke Taber
Pastor Duke Taber

Pastor Duke Taber

All articles have been written or reviewed by Pastor Duke Taber.
Pastor Duke Taber is an alumnus of Life Pacific University and Multnomah Biblical Seminary.
He has been in pastoral ministry since 1988.
Today he is the owner and managing editor of 3 successful Christian websites that support missionaries around the world.
He is currently starting a brand new church in Mesquite NV called Mesquite Worship Center, a Non-Denominational Spirit Filled Christian church in Mesquite Nevada.