What is Edom in the Bible?


Edom, a significant region in the Old Testament, has a rich biblical history that often goes unnoticed by many. Its connection to biblical events and figures, as well as its prophetic significance, are essential aspects for Christians to explore. In this blog post, we will delve into the origins of Edom, its relationship with Israel, and its prophetic significance as presented in the New King James Version (NKJV) of the Bible.

Edom, also referred to as Idumea, is a region located in the ancient Near East, south of the Dead Sea, and extending into modern-day Jordan. The Edomites, descendants of Esau, the twin brother of Jacob, were known for their skill in metallurgy and trade. Throughout biblical history, the relationship between the Israelites (descendants of Jacob) and the Edomites (descendants of Esau) was marked by conflict and tension, reflecting the sibling rivalry that began in the womb of their mother, Rebekah.

To gain a comprehensive understanding of Edom’s role in the Bible, we will first examine its beginnings through the story of Esau, its interactions with Israel, and its eventual fate as prophesied by the biblical prophets. By doing so, we aim to offer valuable insight into this fascinating biblical region and its relevance to the broader narrative of Scripture.

the Bible

Origins of Edom: The Story of Esau

The story of Esau, the father of the Edomites, begins in Genesis 25:19-34. Esau, the firstborn son of Isaac and Rebekah, was born moments before his twin brother, Jacob. As the firstborn, Esau was entitled to the birthright, a special privilege that included leadership of the family and a double portion of inheritance. However, the Bible records that Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a bowl of stew, an act that would have lasting consequences for their descendants.

“Thus Esau despised his birthright.” (Genesis 25:34, NKJV)

As the story continues, we learn that Jacob, through deceit, secured the blessing intended for Esau from their father Isaac (Genesis 27). This event set the stage for the ongoing tension between the two brothers and their descendants.

Edom’s Relationship with Israel: Conflict and Tension

Throughout the Old Testament, the relationship between Edom and Israel was marked by conflict and tension. One notable example occurred during the Exodus when the Israelites, led by Moses, sought passage through Edom on their way to Canaan. The Edomites refused to grant them passage, forcing the Israelites to take a longer route (Numbers 20:14-21).

“Then Edom said to him, ‘You shall not pass through my land, lest I come out against you with the sword.’” (Numbers 20:18, NKJV)

During the time of the Israelite monarchy, Edom was often a vassal state, subjected to the rule of Israel’s kings (2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 11:15-16). However, the Edomites took advantage of opportunities to rebel against Israelite rule and attack their neighbors (2 Kings 8:20-22; 2 Chronicles 28:17).

Prophetic Significance of Edom

Several biblical prophets, including Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Obadiah, spoke about the eventual judgment and destruction of Edom. These prophecies were often tied to Edom’s mistreatment of Israel and their prideful attitude.

The prophecy of Obadiah specifically addresses the destruction of Edom due to their pride and violence against their brother, Israel:

“For violence against your brother Jacob, shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever.” (Obadiah 1:10, NKJV)

Isaiah also prophesied about Edom’s downfall, describing it as a desolate land:

“The whole land of Edom shall be a desolation; everyone who passes by it will be horrified and will hiss at all its wounds.” (Isaiah 34:5-6, NKJV)

Similarly, Ezekiel and Jeremiah prophesied the destruction and desolation of Edom as a consequence of their actions against Israel and their pride:

“I will stretch out My hand against Edom, cut off man and beast from it, and make it desolate from Teman; Dedan shall fall by the sword.” (Ezekiel 25:13, NKJV)

“Edom also shall be an astonishment; everyone who goes by it will be astonished and will hiss at all its plagues.” (Jeremiah 49:17, NKJV)

Historically, the Edomite kingdom was eventually conquered by the Babylonians, followed by the Nabateans, and finally the Romans, who absorbed Edom into their province of Arabia Petraea. The Edomite people and their culture gradually disappeared, fulfilling the prophetic words of the biblical prophets.


The story of Edom in the Bible is a complex and intriguing one, highlighting the interwoven narrative of sibling rivalry, conflict, and divine judgment. The relationship between Edom and Israel, the descendants of the twin brothers Esau and Jacob, serves as a testament to the consequences of human choices and the fulfillment of God’s divine plan.

As Christians, we can learn valuable lessons from the story of Edom. First, we must recognize the importance of valuing and preserving our spiritual inheritance, as Esau’s disregard for his birthright led to the estrangement between him and his brother, and ultimately, the difficult relationship between their descendants. Second, the prophetic significance of Edom serves as a reminder of God’s sovereignty and justice, as He brings judgment upon nations that act unjustly and defiantly towards His people.

In conclusion, the story of Edom in the Bible provides a fascinating look into the complex relationships between nations and individuals, as well as the far-reaching consequences of our actions. As we study the biblical narrative of Edom, we can gain insight into God’s sovereign plan for history, the importance of valuing our spiritual inheritance, and the assurance that He will ultimately bring justice to all nations.

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