What Does Groaning Mean in the Bible?

Groaning is a recurrent theme throughout the Bible that carries deep spiritual significance. From the groanings of Israel in Egypt to the groanings of all creation longing for redemption, groaning communicates a visceral sense of anguish, despair, or yearning. For the Christian, understanding the meaning of groaning in Scripture grants wisdom into the human condition and God’s purposes. In this comprehensive article, we will explore the major contexts where groaning emerges in the Bible and derive lessons for faith and life.

Key Takeaways:

  • Groaning often expresses intense human suffering and anguish over dire circumstances.
  • The groanings of God’s people under oppression stir Him to action for their deliverance.
  • Nature’s groanings signal the universality of suffering under the Fall and yearning for ultimate redemption.
  • The Spirit intercedes for believers with wordless groanings that express our deepest needs.
  • Groaning caused by the struggles and sufferings of this life instill hope for the glories of eternity.
  • Learning to groan over our fallen state leads to repentance and revival.
  • Groaning in prayer aligns our spirits with the burdens of Christ’s heart.
What Does Groaning Mean in the Bible?

Groaning as an Expression of Human Suffering and Anguish

One of the most common contexts for groaning in Scripture is in relation to human suffering. The visceral act of groaning conveys intense distress, agony, and despair in the midst of dire afflictions.

In Exodus 2, the Bible records:

And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. (Exodus 2:23-24 NKJV)

Under the relentless cruelty of slavery in Egypt, the torment of God’s people found expression in tortured sighs and anguished groans. Their broken spirits cried out to God, stirring divine compassion.

When Jacob was deceived into thinking his favored son Joseph had been killed, the Bible records:

And Jacob tore his clothes, put sackcloth on his waist, and mourned for his son many days…All his sons and all his daughters arose to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted. And he said, “For I shall go down into the grave to my son in mourning.” Thus his father wept for him. (Genesis 37:34-35 NKJV)

Jacob’s inconsolable grief led to protracted groaning and weeping over the supposed loss of Joseph. His paternal love amplified the bitterness of his suffering.

Perhaps most starkly, the book of Job chronicles the depths one can plunge in the midst of intense affliction:

Why is light given to him who is in misery, And life to the bitter of soul, Who long for death, but it does not come, And search for it more than hidden treasures; Who rejoice exceedingly, And are glad when they can find the grave? (Job 3:20-22 NKJV)

Crushed by catastrophic loss, Job groans under the unbearable weight of affliction. In his anguish, Job resorts to dwelling upon the grave as a means of escape.

Like Israel enslaved, Jacob in mourning, and Job in torment, the situation of humanity in a fallen, broken world is one of tragedy and suffering. Groaning gives voice to the depths of human anguish.

The Groans of God’s People Stir Him to Action

One of the most striking patterns with groaning in Scripture is how God responds to the groans of His people. The Bible repeatedly reveals God hearing and responding to the groanings of His children, especially when oppressed.

The psalmist declares:

I am weary with my groaning; All night I make my bed swim; I drench my couch with my tears. My eye wastes away because of grief… But as for me, my prayer is to You, O Lord, in the acceptable time; O God, in the multitude of Your mercy, Hear me in the truth of Your salvation.
(Psalm 6:6, 9 NKJV)

Even David, the mighty warrior-king, was reduced to a nightly torrent of groans and tears in the midst of affliction. Yet he cries out in hope of God’s salvation in response to his lament.

As we previously explored, Israel’s anguished cries under Egyptian bondage ascended to God’s throne, provoking divine action for deliverance. In Exodus 3, God reveals the source of His concern:

Then the Lord said: “I have surely seen the oppression of My people who are in Egypt, and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters, for I know their sorrows. So I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey…” (Exodus 3:7-8 NKJV)

The groanings of God’s children in distress stir Him to compassion and propel Him to intervene on their behalf.

Equally as moving is God’s promise of judgment against the wicked who provoke the groans of the righteous. Isaiah records this pronouncement:

“For the violence done to Lebanon shall cover you, And the plunder of beasts which made them afraid, Because of men’s blood And the violence of the land and the city, And of all who dwell in it.

“What profit is the image, that its maker should carve it, The molded image, a teacher of lies, That the maker of its mold should trust in it, To make mute idols? Woe to him who says to wood, ‘Awake!’ To silent stone, ‘Arise! It shall teach!’ Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, Yet in it there is no breath at all.

“But the Lord is in His holy temple. Let all the earth keep silence before Him.” (Habakkuk 2:17-20 NKJV)

The groans of the oppressed incite the wrath of divine justice against unrighteousness. God promises to silence the wicked who provoke the anguished cries of His people.

This theme continues in the New Testament, as the martyrdom of the saints in Revelation stirs divine vengeance:

When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the testimony which they held. And they cried with a loud voice, saying, “How long, O Lord, holy and true, until You judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” (Revelation 6:9-10 NKJV)

The groans of God’s persecuted and martyred children resound in heaven’s courts, spurring God’s coming judgment and vindication.

As God’s people suffer affliction and oppression in a fallen world, they can take hope and courage that their groanings summon the ears of God. He promises to be moved with compassion, to answer with deliverance and justice.

Nature’s Groanings Testify to the Universality of Suffering under the Fall

Not only does humanity groan under the weight of a broken world, but nature itself groans from the afflictions of the Fall. This reveals the universality and cosmic consequences of sin.

The Apostle Paul writes in Romans 8:

For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope; because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now. (Romans 8:19-22 NKJV)

Nature’s eager longing and laborious groans echo the agonies of humanity under sin’s curse. Storms, earthquakes, disease, suffering animals, and environmental brokenness all give an almost human voice to creation’s “bondage to corruption.”

The Hastings Bible Dictionary comments regarding Romans 8:

The groanings of the creature are a parable of the condition of man under the power of sin. Nature’s cycles of life and death, growth and decay, promising spring and barren winter, beauty and deformity – all alike share in the universal subjective futility, and cry in their inarticulate language for the revelation of the sons of God which shall deliver them.

All creation shares the curse of human rebellion, longing for the day when God’s children will experience total redemption from death and sin. Nature’s groans foreshadow the coming liberation.

The universality of groaning gives insight into the cosmic scope of Christ’s redemptive work. Through His atoning sacrifice, Jesus came to redeem not just humanity, but the entire created order. As nature groans, it cries out for the completion of Christ’s restoration of all things (Colossians 1:19-20).

For the Christian living in a turbulent world racked by the groaning of creation, we can find hope in the promise that these birth pangs signal the imminent birthing of God’s new creation. The day hastens when Eden’s radiance will blossom across the earth eternally.

The Spirit’s Groanings Intercede According to God’s Will

One of the most mysterious references to groaning is Romans 8:26-27, where Paul writes:

Likewise the Spirit also helps in our weaknesses. For we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. Now He who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because He makes intercession for the saints according to the will of God. (Romans 8:26-27 NKJV)

Though we often struggle to pray according to God’s will in our human frailty, the Holy Spirit prays with divine wisdom and passion for our lives. The groanings of the Spirit express our deepest needs before God’s throne with profound understanding.

Matthew Henry comments on this passage:

The Spirit helps us in our praying infirmities, by enabling us to pray with the spirit and with the understanding also. Carnal hearts, left to themselves, know not what to pray for as they ought. It is the office of the Spirit to assist us in all our addresses to God. His groanings cannot be uttered. Our desires are imperfectly known to ourselves. The fullness and correctness of them is comprehended only by God. The desires which the Spirit of God working in us creates are according to the will of God.

As we yield more fully to the Holy Spirit’s work in our lives, our human spirits will find deeper alignment with His leadings. Our yearnings will sync with His groanings so that our prayers strike at the core of God’s intentions for our lives and world. Learning to interpret the Spirit’s groanings transforms and strengthens our prayer lives.

Groaning as an Expression of Hope in Future Glory

Paradoxically, groaning often emerges from a place of hope rather than despair. As opposed to nihilistic lamentation, biblical hope-filled groaning expresses longing for the dawning glories of God’s promises.

Paul writes in 2 Corinthians 5:

For we know that if our earthly house, this tent, is destroyed, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed with our habitation which is from heaven, if indeed, having been clothed, we shall not be found naked. For we who are in this tent groan, being burdened, not because we want to be unclothed, but further clothed, that mortality may be swallowed up by life. (2 Corinthians 5:1-4 NKJV)

Our agonized groanings and burdens in this transient, mortal existence fuel longing for the day when we will inherit resurrection bodies and eternal life in God’s presence. Like pregnancy contractions presage birth, earthly groaning precedes eternal glory.

This truth fueled Paul’s perspective:

For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, is working for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory, while we do not look at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen. For the things which are seen are temporary, but the things which are not seen are eternal. (2 Corinthians 4:17-18 NKJV)

By fixing his gaze upon the unseen eternal realm and its coming revelations, Paul’s sufferings assumed their proper place as “light affliction.” If our groaning remains grounded solely in the visible world, we will descend into despair. But as hope lifts our eyes to the horizon of eternity, our groans become pregnant with glory.

This theme continues in Romans 8:

For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God…For we were saved in this hope, but hope that is seen is not hope; for why does one still hope for what he sees? But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with perseverance. (Romans 8:18-19, 24-25 NKJV)

Our groanings in this life cannot thwart the bliss that awaits in eternity. The more acutely we feel the world’s brokenness, the greater our hunger for the age to come. This lifts our eyes in hope, fueling patient perseverance.

The great cloud of witnesses who have gone before us testify that the sufferings of this life fade into oblivion when compared with the ocean of eternal joy in God’s presence (Hebrews 12:1). As we join creation’s chorus of groans, fix your eyes on the Unseen. Our living hope precludes falling into despondency, lighting our path until the dawning of eternal day.

Groaning Over Our Fallen State Leads to Repentance and Revival

At times in Scripture, groaning signaled those who came face to face with their own fallen nature. Encountering the chasm between God’s holiness and their sinfulness provoked profound groans of remorse and repentance.

Ezra provides a potent example:

At the evening sacrifice I arose from my fasting; and having torn my garment and my robe, I fell on my knees and spread out my hands to the Lord my God. And I said: “O my God, I am too ashamed and humiliated to lift up my face to You, my God; for our iniquities have risen higher than our heads, and our guilt has grown up to the heavens.” (Ezra 9:5-6 NKJV)

Catching even a glimpse of his own sin in contrast to God’s law plunged Ezra into anguished groaning and fasting. He did not simply mouth empty platitudes – his remorse expressed itself viscerally.

Isaiah had a similar experience when granted a vision of God’s glory:

“Woe is me, for I am undone! Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For my eyes have seen the King, The Lord of hosts.” (Isaiah 6:5 NKJV)

Overwhelmed with godly sorrow, Isaiah could only groan and declare himself undone. The prophet knew no covering for sin could survive direct exposure to God’s awesome holiness.

In the New Testament, Jesus’ half-brother James applies this principle:

Draw near to God and He will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded. Lament and mourn and weep! Let your laughter be turned to mourning and your joy to gloom. Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and He will lift you up. (James 4:8-10 NKJV)

James urges the type of devastating self-confrontation modeled by Ezra and Isaiah. He prescribes weeping and mournful groaning as conduits of godly repentance.

When our hearts grow dull and compromised with sin, exposure to God’s fiery holiness rekindles agony over our condition. The resulting groanings water the seeds of revival. Just as labor pains precede new life, groanings over sin prepare the ground for restoration.

Charles Finney, the great revivalist preacher, testified:

The depth of agony that I often witnessed in the house of God was such as to prostrate the stoutest men on the floor as though a cannon shot had struck them…Strong men were made to quail and quake under the searching Spirit of God. When God sets out to recover a backslider or convert a sinner, He will make them groan over their sin. Such groanings rend your heart!

May fresh glimpses of Jesus’ beauty instill groans of godly sorrow that usher revival!

Groaning in Prayer Aligns Our Hearts with Christ’s Burdens

One final context where groaning emerges is in intercessory prayer for the dire needs of others. As we lift up the sufferings and struggles of humanity before God, the Holy Spirit burdens us with Christ’s own heart of compassion. We begin to groan under the weight of His intercessory concerns for a lost and broken world.

Paul urged the following:

Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known to God; and the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus. (Philippians 4:6-7 NKJV)

As we unload our cares and concerns before God in prayer, His supernatural peace begins to guard our hearts. The Spirit redirects our anxieties into divinely guided intercession.

Likewise, in Romans 15 Paul writes:

Now may the God of patience and comfort grant you to be like-minded toward one another, according to Christ Jesus, that you may with one mind and one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore receive one another, just as Christ also received us, to the glory of God. Now I say that Jesus Christ has become a servant to the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made to the fathers, and that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy, as it is written:

“For this reason I will confess to You among the Gentiles, And sing to Your name.”

As Christ’s heart yearns for unity and salvation for all peoples, so our spirits groan in prayerful sync with His intercession. Rather than insular petitions, the Spirit expands our prayers to encompass the cosmic breadth of redemption.

Jesus repeatedly groaned in the depths of intercessory prayer during His earthly ministry. When confronted with the reality of Lazarus’ death, John 11 records:

When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who came with her weeping, He groaned in the spirit and was troubled. And He said, “Where have you laid him?” They said to Him, “Lord, come and see.” Jesus wept. Then the Jews said, “See how He loved him!” (John 11:33-36 NKJV)

Compassion for the mourners’ grief and the reality of death’s curse troubled Jesus deeply. His spirit groaned under the weight of love’s sorrow. Christ’s prayer burden galvanized Him to miraculously raise Lazarus as a blow to Death’s tyranny.

Matthew’s Gospel provides further insight into Jesus’ prayer of intercession in Gethsemane as He bore the sins of the world:

Then He said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me.” He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as You will.” (Matthew 26:38-39 NKJV)

The soul anguish of the cross condensed into one tortuous groan of abandoned surrender to the Father’s will. Jesus’ groanings channeled the currents of atonement as He stood in the breach between a sinful world and the judgment seat of God.

As we yield more fully to the leading of the Spirit, expect to share in Christ’s burdens at times through prayerful groanings over specific situations. Our intercession aligns with God’s redemptive purposes.


In summary, groaning weaves throughout Scripture as a visceral expression of living in a fallen, painful world. It gives voice to the depths of human anguish and the longing for redemption. For the believer, groaning develops compassion while anchoring hope firmly in the world to come. Just as moans precede birth, groanings in this life herald the coming glories of eternity that will swallow mortality forever. Learning to interpret and lean into the groanings of the Spirit expands our capacity to pray according to God’s will. While groaning may accompany seasons of darkness, understanding its purpose equips us to sing with conviction:

Teach me to love the discipline of groaning. Let me learn treasures from the depth of sighing. All so I might know the hope that lifts my eyes beyond the shroud of dying.

May God grant us wisdom and perseverance until the day dawns when groaning gives way to glory. Maranatha!

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