What Do Drums Symbolize in the Bible?
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What Do Drums Symbolize in the Bible?

Drums and percussion instruments are mentioned numerous times throughout the Bible, often symbolizing important spiritual themes and messages. In this comprehensive blog post, we will explore the significance of drums in the Scriptures and what they represent for believers today.


Drums have been used in worship and ceremony across many cultures for thousands of years. In the Bible, drums are referred to mainly in the Old Testament, as percussion instruments were widely used in Jewish worship and festivals. The drum was likely one of the first musical instruments invented by mankind.

For Christians seeking to understand the meaning of drums in the Bible, there are a few key takeaways:

  • Drums represent joyful praise and celebration to God
  • They are used to proclaim God’s power and victory
  • Drumming symbolizes spiritual warfare and driving out evil
  • Rhythmic drum beats reflect the heartbeat of God
  • Drumming leads people into God’s presence through dance and worship

In this post, we will explore the history of drums in the Bible, examine key passages that mention them, and discuss the symbolic meaning and significance of drums for Christians today. Whether you are a drummer yourself or simply interested in Biblical worship, this post will give you a deeper understanding of what drums represent in God’s Word.

Brief History of Drums in the Bible

Drums and percussion instruments are referred to more than 80 times in the Old Testament. The Hebrew word “toph” is most commonly translated as timbrel, tambourine or frame drum. The toph was a small hand drum often used by women in dance and processionals, such as in the famous scene of Miriam and the Israelite women celebrating the victory over Egypt by dancing and drumming (Exodus 15:20).

Other terms used are tzeltzelim (2 Samuel 6:5), mena’an’im (2 Samuel 6:5) and shalishim (1 Samuel 18:6), which all refer to various kinds of cymbals and percussion. The Israelite tabret, pa’amon and machhol all describe larger frame drums that were beaten with sticks. Drums were regular instruments in temple worship, used on joyous occasions and spiritual ceremonies.

In the New Testament, drums are not directly mentioned, which aligns with the more solemn tone of early Christian worship. However, Revelation 5:8 describes heavenly creatures falling down before the Lamb “having every one of them harps, and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.” This image of harps and lyres in the throne room of God connects back to the Old Testament use of percussion and dance as a way to ascend to the Holy One.

Key Passages about Drums in Worship

Here are some of the most significant passages that reference drums in the context of worship and praise:

Exodus 15:20-21“And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.”

This passage describes Moses’ sister Miriam leading the Israelites, particularly the women, in celebratory praise to God for delivering them from the Egyptians. The timbrel or hand drum was used as a joyful instrument of worship to God for his victory and salvation.

1 Samuel 18:6-7 – “When David returned from killing the Philistine, the women came out from all the cities of Israel to meet King Saul, singing and dancing with tambourines, with shouts of joy, and with three-stringed instruments. And the women danced as they sang, and said, “Saul has killed his thousands, but David his tens of thousands.””

In this passage, drums and dance signify the women’s celebration of David’s triumph over Goliath. The steady drum beats reflect the joy of God subduing Israel’s enemies through his appointed leaders.

Psalm 68:25“The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; among them were the maidens playing timbrels.”

This verse describes a procession to the temple headed by musicians and singers, followed by young women playing tambourines. The drum beats guided the people’s march to the house of the Lord.

Psalm 150:1-6“Praise the Lord! Praise God in his sanctuary; praise him in his mighty heavens! Praise him for his mighty deeds; praise him according to his excellent greatness! Praise him with trumpet sound; praise him with lute and harp! Praise him with tambourine and dance; praise him with strings and pipe! Praise him with sounding cymbals; praise him with loud clashing cymbals! Let everything that has breath praise the Lord! Praise the Lord!”

This six-verse psalm crescendos with a call for every instrument and every person to praise the Lord. Drums such as tambourines and cymbals are specifically mentioned as part of the orchestra of praise to God.

Symbolic Meaning of Drums in the Bible

Based on how drums are used in these Biblical passages, we can draw out some key symbolic meanings:

Joyful Praise & Celebration

The sound of drums was associated with celebrating, singing and dancing before God. The steady beats reflect an outpouring of joy and thanksgiving for God’s blessings and victories.

Proclaiming God’s Power

In processionals to the temple, drums proclaimed the power and majesty of the Lord most high. They also glorified God’s strength when used in victory celebrations.

Spiritual Warfare

The deep, rhythmic pounds of drums were used to drive out evil spirits and clear the way for the Spirit of the Lord. Through spiritual warfare, God wins victory over spiritual forces of darkness.

God’s Presence Through Worship

Drumming summons people into God’s presence as they sing, dance and worship before Him. The drumbeats align the congregation to the heartbeat of God.

Revelation & Prophecy

Drums marked the pronouncements of prophets, the words of God, and revealed messages from the Holy Spirit in certain ceremonial contexts.

Applying Symbolism of Drums for Believers Today

For Christians today seeking to apply these symbols and meanings to their worship, drums hold some vital implications:

  • Believers can praise God through drums and percussion, as many verses exhort us to worship God with dance and instruments
  • Congregational drumming can reflect the joy of the Lord as our strength (Nehemiah 8:10)
  • Individuals can counter spiritual attack through praise reports and spiritual songs with drum accompaniment (Psalms 149:6)
  • Churches should be encouraged to have rhythm sections/drummers to facilitate musical worship, as drums are the most referenced instrument in connection with praise to God
  • The rhythm of drums can align our hearts with God’s heartbeat of love, grace and justice
  • Drumming can prepare our spirits to hear God’s voice and receive His revelation

The drum beats out a call to rejoice, celebrate, fight, dance, prophesy and exult in the name of our glorious Lord. As Christians seeking to worship God in spirit and in truth (John 4:24), we must include the drum in our expressions of praise.

Drums and Percussion for Prayer & Spiritual Warfare

One of the key symbolic meanings of drums is spiritual warfare and driving out spiritual forces of darkness. The climactic spiritual battle at the end times is described as follows:

“Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, “Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death.” (Revelation 12:10-11 NKJV)

Just as drums and dance led the charge into physical battle in the Old Testament, so worship and praise precedes and accompanies victory over demonic powers trying to influence believers today.

Here are some ways Christians can use drums and percussion in prayer and spiritual warfare:

  • Playing rhythmic drum beats or percussion during prayer meetings to wage spiritual warfare in the heavenly realms
  • Quiet drum rolls building to crescendos during intense seasons of intercession, mourning, repentance, or fasting
  • Sounding a large bass drum or djembe to punctuate prophetic decrees, declarations, and promises from God over cities, nations, or in rooms of intercession
  • Gathering young warriors/intercessors to pray and praise with abandonment through drum circles and dance
  • Proclaiming victory in Christ through marching/dancing to the loud beat of drums after seasons of prayer and petition

Just as the Israelites sent their choir and musicians ahead of the army (2 Chronicles 20), so worship and praise through song, drums and dance should precede strategic spiritual warfare. Rhythmic drumming stirs our spirits to partner with the heartbeat of God and the activity of His angelic armies advancing His Kingdom.

The Drum as the Heartbeat of God

A distinctive characteristic of drums and percussion is the rhythmic, pulsating beats that resonate deeply and spiritually with human hearts. From African talking drums to Native American pow wows to Pentecostal drumming, the drum has carried divine meaning across cultures. Why does the rhythm of drums so powerfully interact with the human spirit?

Reflecting the Rhythm of Life

At a biological level, the drumbeat reflects the rhythm of life itself – the human heartbeat and pulse. Studies show drumming can actually synchronize brain waves and rhythms in the body to the tempo being played. The drumbeat resonates with the electrical vibrations innate in our physical being.

Revealing God’s Character

The throbbing drum reflects the heartbeat of God Himself, pulsing with life, power and passionate love for His people. Certain drumbeats seem to unveil the emotional heart and intensity of God’s personality and feelings toward us.

Roar of the Lion of Judah

In revelation of Christ in His glory, He appears as the conquering Lion of Judah releasing a thunderous roar – the sound of rhythmic drumming patterns (Revelation 5:5). The drum manifests the triumphant lion-roar of Christ defeating the enemy and birthing revival.

Alignment with the Holy Spirit

The drum ushers in and accompanies the moving of God’s Spirit, aligning our hearts with the present activity of the Spirit. As the Spirit’s flow intensifies, often drumming increases to match the spiritual momentum.

The throbbing drum fundamentally represents the very pulse and heartbeat of the living God. As Christians seek to align with God’s heart and enter His manifest presence, rhythmic drumming facilitates a vital spiritual connection.

Drumming in the Pentecostal & Charismatic Movements

Over the past century, drums have become a signature element of worship and praise in Pentecostal and Charismatic church services. The driving beats of the drum set the atmosphere for active participation in worship, spontaneous prophetic release, and expecting God to move.

Roots in African & Slave Worship Traditions

In the development of the Pentecostal movement in the early 1900s, African-American worship styles became incorporated, including their use of drums and percussion. The drum carried over from tribal ceremonial traditions and communicated life experiences such as suffering, lament, celebration and victory.

Fueling Energetic Worship & Praise

Pentecostal worship is characterized by zealous expressions like leaping, shouting, dancing, banners and waving hands. The energetic rhythm of drums fuels and accompanies these embodied forms of praise. The drum liberates the congregation to praise God with abandonment and physical expression.

Facilitating Spontaneity & Flow of the Spirit

Unlike formal, structured liturgical traditions, Pentecostal worship follows the spontaneous flow of the Holy Spirit. Drumming provides momentum and energy as worshippers wait on the Spirit’s inspiration and direction for praise, prophecy, healing, words of knowledge, etc.

Releasing Prophetic Revelation

In some revival contexts, prophetic utterances have been released to the cadence of accelerating drum beats. As the drumming intensifies, it seems to break open the heavens for fresh revelation and outpouring of the Spirit.

Driving Out Spiritual Oppression

Pentecostal worship teams have used drumming along with praise and prayer to dispel spiritual heaviness or demonic oppression in the atmosphere. The loud, penetrating beats help purge a space for the light and life of the Holy Spirit to flood in.

The drum remains a vital part of the fabric of Pentecostal and Charismatic worship traditions. As we eagerly await Christ’s return, drumming will continue to prophetically thunder through the Church with the heartbeat of revival.

Common Questions about Drumming in Worship

For Christians new to expressive, rhythmic worship including drums, here are answers to some common questions:

Isn’t drumming distracting or too loud for church?

Everything in moderation – drummers should be sensitive to song needs and follow the worship leader’s cues. Also, providing acoustic isolation for the drum set can help prevent excessive loudness.

Are drums too associated with secular music?

Drums themselves are amoral – God created all materials. In worship, drums are dedicated to glorify Christ like all instruments.

Aren’t drums an African or tribal instrument?

Drums have been used across all cultures for sacred and ceremonial purposes since ancient times. Biblically, drums were part of Old Testament Jewish worship.

Is there Bible support for drums in worship?

Yes, there are over 80 Old Testament references connecting drums to praise and worship, most notably by David in bringing the ark to Jerusalem.

Should churches have drum sets/drummers?

If musically gifted drummers are available, they add great energy and empowercongregational worship and praise. Most Pentecostal/Charismatic churches encourage and incorporate drum sets.

Can’t drums be too loud and chaotic?

An anointed worship leader directs the drummers to play sensitively to the needs of the service. Also, investing in quality drum gear and sound insulation helps control volume.

Are hand drums like congas OK?

Yes, hand percussion can be beautiful and accessible for worship teams and children’s worship. Variety of timbres in percussion adds richness to the praise experience.

Conclusion: March to the Beat of God’s Drum

From ancient Jewish dances to modern Pentecostal worship, the drum remains a powerful form of praise to God. The pulsating rhythm aligns our hearts with the heartbeat of Almighty God as we glorify Christ through music and movement. Let us be emboldened to march and dance to the strong drumbeat of revival – our Lord and Captain summons us onward! The zeal and passion of the Lord of angel armies will be shouted and sounded through drums proclaiming his eternal Kingdom as we await Christ’s return in glory. Let’s heed the drumbeat, saints – our Warrior King is on the move!

Pastor Duke Taber
Pastor Duke Taber

Pastor Duke Taber

All articles have been written or reviewed by Pastor Duke Taber.
Pastor Duke Taber is an alumnus of Life Pacific University and Multnomah Biblical Seminary.
He has been in pastoral ministry since 1988.
Today he is the owner and managing editor of 3 successful Christian websites that support missionaries around the world.
He is currently starting a brand new church in Mesquite NV called Mesquite Worship Center, a Non-Denominational Spirit Filled Christian church in Mesquite Nevada.