Commentary On 1 Samuel 23
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Commentary On 1 Samuel 23

Serving as a critical juncture in the elaboration of the story of David, the Book of 1 Samuel Chapter 23 presents a rich tapestry of lessons, divine guidance, beautiful companionships, and the course of true leadership.

This commentary dives deep into the heart of this crucial chapter, offering meaningful insights and unpacking the diverse elements contained herein. Harnessing a charismatic Christian perspective, the commentary aligns with the spirit of 1 Corinthians 2:10 – “these are the things God has revealed to us by his Spirit.”

This article aims to facilitate a deeper understanding of the themes, divine actions, human responses, and their repercussions, as outlined in 1 Samuel 23.

The ultimate aspiration is to illuminate the timeless teachings embedded within this rich narrative, rendering them applicable to our contemporary lives.

Commentary on 1 samuel 23

An Overview and Background of 1 Samuel Chapter 23

The book of 1 Samuel Chapter 23 presents a compelling narrative about the life and leadership of King David during his early years. The chapter begins with David receiving information about the Philistine’s attack on Keilah, a city known for its threshing floors.

Prompted by a divine inquiry, David decides to come to the rescue of this besieged city, leading his men to overpower the Philistines and liberate Keilah (1 Samuel 23:1-5). Thereafter, the narrative unfolds a remarkable drama of faith, true leadership, friendship, divine guidance, and relentless pursuit by King Saul.

Within such a context, there are several distinctive themes that stand out in 1 Samuel 23. One of the primary themes is David’s consistent reliance on God for guidance in moments of uncertainty.

This is clearly seen in David’s decision to both rescue Keilah and later to leave it through consultations with God via Urim (1 Samuel 23:9-13). Additionally, it highlights the deep friendship between David and Jonathan, Saul’s son.

Jonathan encourages David to remain strong and promises him that he will succeed in his endeavours, emphasizing the deep bond and mutual respect between them (1 Samuel 23:14-18). The narrative also presents the relentless pursuit of Saul, pointing out Saul’s jealousy and obsession with killing David.

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The last part of the chapter sheds light on David’s narrow escapes from Saul’s pursuit. David, aware of Saul’s intention, continually changes his location and manages to avoid Saul’s capture. In one instance, David is saved by an invading Philistine army that distracts Saul from his pursuit (1 Samuel 23:26-29).

It is also noteworthy to recognize how God intervenes in these situations delivering David from the hands of Saul. This chapter, in general, displays David’s steadfast faith in God, his leadership skills, and his unwavering determination to respect Saul’s life despite the latter’s hostility.

It culminates the faith journey of an anointed future king who is concurrently a fugitive, emphasising on the great biblical theme of ‘suffering before glory’.

David’s Divine Guided Decisions and Encounters in Keilah (1 Samuel 23:1-13)

In 1 Samuel 23:1-13, David received divine instructions from God and acted accordingly to save the city of Keilah from the Philistines.

Soon after hearing about the Philistines’ siege of Keilah, David sought the counsel of God. The encounter was characterized as an earnest prayer, with David inquiring of the Lord, “Shall I go and attack these Philistines?” (1 Samuel 23:2, NIV).

God, in His infinite wisdom, unequivocally instructed David, “Go, attack the Philistines and save Keilah.” (1 Samuel 23:2, NIV).

Showing divine-guided leadership, David not only acted promptly but also led his men courageously to alleviate the people of Keilah from their oppressors, which demonstrates obedience and trust in God’s word.

However, David was faced with a dilemma when his men felt afraid (1 Samuel 23:3). But David persisted and sought God’s direction again.

This time, God confirmed His earlier instruction, intensifying the command by saying, “Go down to Keilah, for I am going to give the Philistines into your hand.” (1 Samuel 23:4, NIV).

This divine encounter reassured David, who, alongside his men, carried out the Lord’s command, defeated the Philistines, and saved Keilah (1 Samuel 23:5).

In this scenario, David’s actions underscore the value in continuously seeking God’s guidance, exhibiting boldness amidst fear, and affirming devotion to divine direction.

Later, David found himself in danger as Saul, hearing that David was in Keilah, planned to besiege the city. Once again, David turned to God for counsel and was instructed to leave the city (1 Samuel 23:9-13).

This final encounter vividly illustrates how David’s trust in God’s guidance not only led him to monumental victories but also kept him from harm.

Although David was in a place he had saved, he valued God’s instruction above human reasoning and left Keilah, demonstrating that even in success, the wisdom of God surpasses our understanding.

These divine encounters and guided decisions highlight the importance of obedience, courageous leadership, and relentless trust in God’s counsel.

The Covenant Renewed: Jonathan’s Visit and David’s Strengthening in God (1 Samuel 23:15-18)

In this crucial passage from 1 Samuel, we witness a profound act of obedience and fortification of faith. While David was in the Wilderness of Ziph fearing for his life, Jonathan, son of King Saul, went to him and helped strengthen his belief in God.

Jonathan told David, “Don’t be afraid. My father Saul will not lay hands on you. You will be king over Israel, and I will be second to you. Even my father Saul knows this.”

The two of them imprinted an agreement before The Lord. Jonathan returned home, but David remained in Horesh. How empowering it is to know that Jonathan put his loyalty to David and his faith in God’s prophecy above his royal blood!

Jonathan effectively renewed his covenant of friendship with David and reassured him that God’s plans and promises (1 Samuel 16: 12-13) would come to fruition despite the present adversities. This conversation underscores the importance of supporting each other as believers in Christ during times of uncertainty.

This conversation is a source of strength for any believer battling with fear and uncertainty. It shows us how essential it is to have ‘Jonathans’ in our lives – people who remind us that God is always faithful to His word.

Drawing a parallel from this story, we may also be called upon to play the role of ‘Jonathan’ for someone in their time of need.

As we remain reliant on God’s word and lean upon each other for strength, we can triumph over any upheaval. “Therefore encourage one another and build each other up, just as in fact you are doing.” (1 Thessalonians 5:11)

In the Wilderness of Maon: Unraveling David’s Narrow Escape (1 Samuel 23:19-29)

The wilderness of Maon serves as the backdrop for a particularly significant event in the life of David. While fleeing from Saul, David sought refuge in this inhospitable environment, and it was here that God provided him with a miraculous escape.

According to the biblical passage in 1 Samuel 23:19-29, David was given advanced warning about the Ziphites’ intention to betray him to Saul. Understanding the imminent danger, David with his men relocated to the Desert of Maon in the Arabah south of Jeshimon.

David’s escape becomes more spectacular when you explore the sequence of events that unfolded in the wilderness. Saul and his army, acting on the Ziphites’ tip-off, were closing in on David’s position. It seemed as though David was about to be captured, but God intervened.

The narrative tells us, “But a messenger came to Saul, saying, ‘Hurry and come, for the Philistines have made a raid on the land'” (1 Samuel 23:27). The urgency of this new threat forced Saul to break off his pursuit of David, thereby giving David the narrow escape he needed.

  • God’s intervention in David’s plight demonstrates His mighty hand at work, turning seemingly hopeless situations around for the safety of his anointed servant.
  • In the wilderness of Maon, we see an affirmation of David’s faith in God’s protection and deliverance in times of danger, a faith that has continued to inspire generations of believers.
  • David’s miraculous escape signifies God’s assurance of His promises, reminding us of His sovereignty and His power to intervene in the affairs of His faithful servants.

We can glean several lessons from this wilderness experience of David. God often uses the wilderness moments of our lives to test and strengthen our faith and reliance on Him.

Just like David, we may face dire circumstances that seem hopeless, but our faith in God’s promises allows us to rest assured, knowing He will provide a way out. Let the story of David’s escape in the wilderness of Maon serve as a reassuring reminder of God’s ever-present help in times of need.

Understanding the Key Themes and Theological Connotations of 1 Samuel Chapter 23

1 Samuel 23 revolves around the themes of trust in God, spiritual leadership, and divine providence. The first significant event in this chapter sees David rescuing the city of Keilah from the Philistines.

Despite being forewarned through the ephod, or divine oracle, that he would be betrayed by the inhabitants of Keilah (1 Samuel 23:6-12), David does not shy away from his responsibility.

He unreservedly puts his trust in God and goes ahead to save the city, embodying the biblical principle of valiant spiritual leadership. It also testifies to his belief in God’s encapsulating presence and providence, knowing that irrespective of the possible betrayal, God’s hand was with him.

“Then David said, ‘O Lord, God of Israel, Your servant has heard for certain that Saul is seeking to come to Keilah to destroy the city on my account. Will the men of Keilah surrender me into his hand? Will Saul come down just as Your servant has heard? O Lord, God of Israel, please tell Your servant.’ And the Lord said, ‘He will come down.'” – 1 Samuel 23:10-12 (NASB)

In the middle of this chapter, a question arises about Divine intervention and the concept of a prophet’s role in counseling. David is warned by Jonathan, who prophesies onto David with the words “you will be king over Israel, and I will be next to you” (1 Samuel 23:17).

It exhibits Jonathan’s faith in God’s will and the affirming role of prophecy, guiding David in his perennial conflict against King Saul.

The chapter also alludes to God’s omnipotence through the predicament of Saul, who is pulled away from pursuing David due to the Philistine invasion, suggesting how God diverts threats and creates ways of escape for his chosen ones.

“But now, behold, the king walks before you, but I am the second to the king. As for your promise, let it be to me as you see fit.” – 1 Samuel 23:17 (NASB)

Lastly, 1 Samuel 23 explores the theme of Divine guidance through the oracle of the ephod. David constantly enquires of the Lord before making crucial decisions, showcasing considerable faith in the Almighty, even amid tense circumstances.

The ephod serves as a conduit of God’s will and a significant tool of discernment for David, shedding light on the importance of seeking God’s guidance in our lives.

“Therefore David inquired of the Lord, saying, ‘Shall I go and attack these Philistines?’ And the Lord said to David, ‘Go and attack the Philistines, and save Keilah.'” – 1 Samuel 23:2 (NASB)


In conclusion, the exploration of 1 Samuel 23 provides us with profound insights into the life and leadership of David – the shepherd king of Israel, his faith in God, as well as the providence and protection of God over His people.

It is an embodiment of the truth found in 2 Corinthians 5:7 (NKJV) – “For we walk by faith, not by sight.”

God’s divine guidance and David’s faith-driven decisions, as depicted in these narratives, serve as potent reminders for Christians in the 21st century. In the midst of adversities, uncertainties, and fears, we, like David, can seek the will of God fervently and respond with unwavering obedience.

Equipped with faith as our shield and God’s promises as our foundation, we can confidently navigate through the tumults of life. In this way, the ancient, divine narratives of 1 Samuel 23 continue to echo throughout the centuries, perpetually relevant and constantly illuminating.

As we close our commentary on this inspiring chapter, let us remember to seek God’s guidance in all circumstances, to listen attentively to His voice, and to act courageously in faith.

For as it is written in Proverbs 3:5-6 (NKJV), “Trust in the LORD with all your heart, And lean not on your own understanding; In all your ways acknowledge Him, And He shall direct your paths.” As we continue our journey through 1 Samuel, may these truths penetrate our hearts and transform our lives, always.

In the spirit of love and faith, may God guide us all. Amen.

Pastor duke taber
Pastor Duke Taber

Pastor Duke Taber

All articles have been written or reviewed by Pastor Duke Taber.
Pastor Duke Taber is an alumnus of Life Pacific University and Multnomah Biblical Seminary.
He has been in pastoral ministry since 1988.
Today he is the owner and managing editor of 3 successful Christian websites that support missionaries around the world.
He is currently starting a brand new church in Mesquite NV called Mesquite Worship Center, a Non-Denominational Spirit Filled Christian church in Mesquite Nevada.