How Old Was Mary when She Gave Birth to Jesus?
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How Old Was Mary when She Gave Birth to Jesus?

When it comes to the birth of our Savior, Jesus Christ, one question that often comes up is: how old was Mary when she gave birth to Jesus?

While the New Testament’s gospels of Matthew and Luke recount precious details about the extraordinary circumstances surrounding the conception and birth of Christ, the exact age of Mary at that time is not explicitly mentioned in the NKJV Bible.

Nevertheless, historical and cultural context can provide us with valuable insights.

As we embark on this fascinating and highly debated journey, let’s dive deep into the scriptures, draw knowledge from history, and unravel the life of the young, faithful, and incredibly blessed Virgin Mary, who was chosen by God to bring our Savior into the world.

How old was mary when she gave birth to jesus?

I. The Cultural Context of Mary’s Age in Ancient Jewish Society

In ancient Jewish society, it was common for young women to marry and have children early in their lives. As per the cultural norms, young girls typically married around the age of 12 or 13.

There are various historical sources which support this fact, and an understanding of Mary’s age at the time of Jesus’ birth helps to contextualize her experience as a young mother.

The Mishnah, a collection of Jewish oral traditions, for example, mentions specific age-related responsibilities and roles for both boys and girls, with girls being expected to learn about their responsibilities as wives and mothers from a tender age.

The Bible does not explicitly state Mary’s age at the time of Jesus’ birth, however, the cultural context provides us with clues.

Two significant events in Mary’s life provide some framework for estimating her age. The first event is the Annunciation when the angel Gabriel tells Mary that she will conceive Jesus by the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:30-31, NKJV). The second is her marriage to Joseph (Matthew 1:18-25, NKJV).

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The Scriptures describe her as a “virgin” and “betrothed” to Joseph. Betrothal, or erusin, involved a legal agreement between families and was usually followed by the actual marriage ceremony, called nissu’in, within a year.

In ancient Jewish society, betrothal typically occurred one year before marriage and a girl could be betrothed as young as 12 years old.

Considering these historical and biblical facts, Mary’s age at Jesus’ birth could be estimated as somewhere between 12 and 14 years old, which was the expected age for young women to start a family in ancient Jewish society.

II. Historical Clues to Determine Mary’s Age at Jesus’ Birth

In examining historical clues to determine Mary’s age at Jesus’ birth, we find that the Bible doesn’t provide a precise age for her during this event. Yet, ancient Jewish customs and traditions can give us an understanding of the typical age for girls to marry and bear children at that time.

It is essential to remember that society’s structure and values were vastly different from what they are today, especially regarding marriage and age.

Girls in ancient Israel were often betrothed around the age of 12 or 13, and they would usually marry within a year of their betrothal (Mishnah, Kiddushin 1:1). This early betrothal and marriage were typical for several reasons:

  • Life expectancy was shorter than it is now, which influenced the age people married and had children.
  • Younger brides were considered more desirable because they were more likely to be virgins, ensuring the purity of the lineage.
  • Marriages were typically arranged between families for social, political, or economic benefits, often occurring at a young age to secure alliances.

Taking these factors into account, it is plausible that Mary could have been as young as 12 or 13 when she became pregnant with Jesus. However, the Gospel accounts don’t contain enough details to confirm this with certainty.

Regardless of her exact age, Mary’s complete faith and obedience to God serve as an example for believers to embrace and follow (Luke 1:26-38, Matthew 1:18-25).

III. Theological Considerations in The Virgin Birth Story

The virgin birth story is a critical component of the Christian faith because it is a fulfillment of prophecies found in the Old Testament, demonstrating the divine origin of Jesus Christ.

One significant prophecy can be found in Isaiah 7:14, where it states, “Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel.”

The fulfillment of this prophecy is confirmed in the New Testament when the angel announced to Mary that she would conceive a child by the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:34-35). This miraculous conception is essential in establishing Jesus as the Messiah, both in fulfilling the prophecies and underscoring His divine nature.

In addition to the prophetic significance, the virgin birth asserts that Jesus was born without original sin, inherited from Adam and Eve’s disobedience in the Garden of Eden. The doctrine of original sin teaches that every person is born with a sinful nature due to the fall of humanity in Genesis.

Jesus, being born of a virgin and conceived by the Holy Spirit, bypassed this inherited sin, thus allowing Him to live a sinless life and ultimately serve as a perfect sacrifice for humanity. The virgin birth story emphasizes the divine nature of Jesus, highlighting that He was:

  • Fully God – He is the divine Word of God made flesh (John 1:1).
  • Fully man – He was born of a woman and experienced humanity (Galatians 4:4).
  • Without sin – He was without sin and the only one capable of paying the price for humanity’s redemption (2 Corinthians 5:21).

By reflecting on the theological considerations of the virgin birth story, we can deepen our understanding of the unique and divine nature of Jesus Christ, enabling us to further grasp the magnitude of His sacrificial love.

IV. Scholarly Debates on Mary’s Age during the Nativity

There has been considerable debate among scholars regarding the age of Mary, the mother of Jesus, at the time of the Nativity. Some propose that Mary was quite young, possibly as young as 12 or 13 years old when she conceived Jesus, while others believe she may have been in her late teens or even early twenties.

It is worthy to note that the New King James Version (NKJV) of the Bible does not explicitly mention Mary’s age; therefore, the debate arises from historical, cultural, and textual perspectives.

Various pieces of evidence are used to support each side of the debate, and some of these include:

  • The Protoevangelium of James: This non-canonical early Christian text, dated around the 2nd century AD, claims that Mary was 12 years old when the angel Gabriel visited her (Chapter 9), and 14 years old during the birth of Jesus (Chapter 17).
  • Jewish Marital Customs: In ancient Jewish culture, girls were often betrothed around the age of 12 or 13, and married a year or so later. This supports the notion of a young Mary during the Nativity.
  • Comparison with other biblical figures: For instance, Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist and a relative of Mary, was said to be “advanced in years” (Luke 1:7, NKJV) when she conceived John. This could suggest a contrast between the ages of Mary and Elizabeth.

However, it is essential to keep in mind that these points are not definitive proof of Mary’s age. On the other hand, those arguing for an older Mary tend to focus on the challenges a young girl would have faced in taking on the responsibility of motherhood amidst societal pressures and potential accusations of adultery.

Ultimately, the exact age of Mary during the Nativity remains an open question, but the importance of Mary’s faith, humility, and obedience to God’s will remains central to the Christian narrative, regardless of her specific age.


In conclusion, while the exact age of Mary when she gave birth to Jesus isn’t explicitly stated in the New King James Version (NKJV) Bible or any other biblical texts, various clues and historical context suggest that she was likely a young teenager, around 12 to 14 years old.

Despite her young age, Mary displayed tremendous faith and courage. She embraced the profound responsibility given to her by God and played a crucial role in the story of our salvation through Jesus Christ.

As we reflect on the miraculous circumstances surrounding the birth of Jesus, let us also remember Mary’s unwavering faith and dedication to God’s plan.

In Luke 1:38, Mary’s response to the angel Gabriel’s message sums up her submission to God’s will: “Behold the maidservant of the Lord! Let it be to me according to your word.” Her willingness to accept this life-changing mission, even at such a young age, serves as an example for all of us in our own walks of faith.

So no matter how old Mary was when she gave birth to Jesus, let us celebrate her, not only as the mother of our Savior but also as an inspiring example of faith and obedience, trusting in God’s plan for our lives as she did. May we strive to follow in her footsteps, sharing the love and light of Jesus with the world around us.

Pastor duke taber
Pastor Duke Taber

Pastor Duke Taber

All articles have been written or reviewed by Pastor Duke Taber.
Pastor Duke Taber is an alumnus of Life Pacific University and Multnomah Biblical Seminary.
He has been in pastoral ministry since 1988.
Today he is the owner and managing editor of 3 successful Christian websites that support missionaries around the world.
He is currently starting a brand new church in Mesquite NV called Mesquite Worship Center, a Non-Denominational Spirit Filled Christian church in Mesquite Nevada.